Chemotrophic bacteria, getting its energy by oxidizing dissolved iron
This slimy, red stuff is incredibly fascinating: rather than metabolizing sunlight, like most autotrophs, it lives in the transition zone where water, de-oxygenated by microorganisms feeding on the organic-rich swamp beneath, meets the air. The bacteria combines the oxygen with the iron, keeping the electron released by the oxidation process as its energy supply. Soooper cool! Other iron-oxidizing bacteria form the base of the food chain at geothermal vents on the deep ocean floor where there is no sunlight. If you introduce carbon, you can run the cycle backward. Watch this video for a completely mind-blowing demonstration.
How Much Free Speech for Scientists? » American Scientist
Restrictions on scientific communication are nothing newârecall that Galileo was sentenced to house arrest by Church inquisitors in 1633 for supporting the Copernican theory. But serious threats to the freedom of scientific discourse have come to the forefront recently, after suspicions were raised of Chinese spying at U.S. national laboratories. These allegations triggered the imposition of new restraints and revived some old ones. So it is a good time for the scientific community to reflect on the evolution of such government controls in our time, to express support for regulations that are justified and to protest those that do harm After the outbreak of World War II, many physicists voluntarily censored themselves, with the result that…
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