Cooperation is critical in multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL). In the
context of traffic signal control, good cooperation among the traffic signal
agents enables the vehicles to move through intersections more smoothly.
Conventional transportation approaches implement cooperation by pre-calculating
the offsets between two intersections. Such pre-calculated offsets are not
suitable for dynamic traffic environments. To incorporate cooperation in
reinforcement learning (RL), two typical approaches are proposed to…